Global Ocean Parameter and State Estimation

Because of the formidable challenge of observing the full-depth global ocean circulation in its spatial detail and the many time scales of oceanic motions, numerical simulations play an essential role in quantifying patterns of climate variability and change ... Read more

Coupled Arctic Ocean-Sea Ice Data Assimilation

Observations made since the turn of the 21st century indicate that the Arctic physical environment and associated ecosystems are undergoing remarkable changes. To understand these ongoing and predict future changes we need to be able to quantify how much of Arctic climate variability and change is linked to the ocean circulation, ... Read more

Quantitative Observing System Design

To understand the Earth’s changing climate, it is important to estimate how much heat the ocean takes up from the atmosphere and how the ocean recirculates the heat around the globe. Directly obtaining these estimates from measurements is complicated because oceanographers cannot measure the ocean everywhere and at all times ... Read more

Deciphering the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation

The ocean's overturning circulation redistributes heat, salt and dissolved chemicals around the globe, from the surface to great depths. Variations in overturning have been linked to significant climate change on a range of timescales, but the underlying mechanisms remain under investigation ... Read more

Ice Sheet-Ocean Interactions Around Antartica and Greenland

The Antarctic ice sheet gains and loses mass respectively via snowfall and gravity driven ice streams which flow from land to the sea. Ice shelves form where these streams reach the sea, floating over the ocean due to the density difference between ice and seawater. These formations are critical to the climate system ... Read more

Sea Level Science

The science of sea level is surprisingly complex as it connects a wide range of phenomena of the coupled Earth system. Processes contributing to sea level change include ocean dynamics and thermodynamics driven by atmospheric, hydrologic, and cryospheric forcings ... Read more

Bayesian Inverse Methods for Ice Sheet Model Calibration and Reconstruction

The Greenland ice sheet has emerged as a significant contributor to present-day,and possibly future global sea level rise. Predictions of mass loss are hampered by the lack of comprehensive observational constraints for model calibration, rigorous computational approaches to perform such calibration, ... Read more